Chomutov is placed at the foot of the Ore Mountains in north-west Bohemia in the vicinity of the German border. It was established on the crossroads of previous business routes connecting Prague with Leipzig and Cheb with Ústí nad Labem.

The settlement process commenced during the Stone Age. The first written record of the town originates in 1252, when Bedřich Načeradec gave the small town to the Order of German Knights as a gift. The historical monuments, which are still maintained in the vicinity of 1.máje Square, were established during the middle ages.

Fast development in the 19th century resulted from the growth of coal mining and the iron industry. After World War II, the industrial businesses and housing development expanded. After 1989, heavy industry decreased and the environment in the town significantly improved. The development of recreational activities in the Alum Lake resort, Podkrušnohorský zoo-park and Bezruč Valley became the priority.