The town of Kolín is situated in the fertile lowlands on both banks of the river Labe. Rich archaeological discoveries from the town and its surroundings show that this place was settled long before it is stated in extant written records.

In the regional museum we can find numerous relics commemorating all known settlements in Bohemia. There used to be ancient crossroads of three important trading roads formed as early as in the Roman Empire. The presence of Slavs can be proved even in the 6th century BC.  A lot of discoveries of fortified places and burying-places are the evidence of dense population in this area in 9th and 12th centuries.

The historical centre of the town has many gothic and baroque buildings. Most notable are the main market (Karls Square), the Jewish ghetto and synagogue, the very old and large Jewish cemetery, and St. Bartholomeus Church from the 13th century (work of the architect Peter Parler).